Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris: Author. Pahlke, E. Hyde, and J. The effects of single-sex compared with coeducational schooling on mathematics and science achievement: Data from Korea. Journal of Educational Psychology 2 — Pang, J. Changing teaching practices toward effective mathematics instruction in the Korean context: Characteristics and implications.
Changes to the Korean mathematics curriculum: Expectations and challenges. Li and G. Lappan, eds. Dordrecht: Springer. Park, K. School mathematics curriculum in Korea. Pepin, B. The influence of national cultural traditions on pedagogy: Classroom practices in England, France and Germany. Learners and Pedagogy — Sadler, M.
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Preparing primary teachers in the United States: Balancing selection and preparation. Wang, and C. Curriculum coherence: An examination of US mathematics and science content standards from an international perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies 37 5 — Schoenfeld, A. A discourse on methods. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 25 6 — Looking toward the 21st century: Challenges of educational theory and practice. Educational Researcher 28 7 :4— Shulman, L. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher 15 2 :4— Simon, M. Reconstructing mathematics pedagogy from a constructivist perspective.
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Situated Learning Theory (Lave)
A global look at math instruction. Teaching Children Mathematics 17 6 — A cross-national comparison of reform curricula in Korea and the US in terms of cognitive complexity: The case of fraction addition and subtraction. Stein, M. The role of mathematics curriculum materials in large-scale urban reform: An analysis of demands and opportunities for teacher learning. Remillard, B. Herbel-Eisenmann, and G. Lloyd, eds. New York: Routledge.
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Lester, ed. Smith, M. Henningsen, and E. Implementing Standards-based Mathematics Instruction. New York: Teachers College. Stillman, L. Supovitz, J. Developing communities of instructional practice. Teachers College Record 8 — Didactics of mathematics: An epistemological approach to mathematics education.
Curriculum Journal 18 4 — Wong, N. Wong, and E. What do the Chinese value in mathematics education? Wu, H. American Educator 35 3 :3— The workshop was organized to address questions and issues related to math teaching and curriculum that were generated by each country, including the following: What are the main concerns in the development of the curriculum? What issues have been discussed or debated among curriculum developers, teachers, teacher educators, and scholars regarding the curriculum?
How have textbooks been developed for the curriculum? How are curricular tasks designed and what criteria are used? What is the role of learning trajectories in the development of curriculum? This report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the workshop. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.
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Page 70 Share Cite. Lave and Wenger wrote about the work of teaching tailors in Liberia and found that new tailors developed the necessary skills by serving as apprenticeships and learning from experienced tailors. Wenger , pp. In summary, perspectives of social learning recognize that learners develop individually with the support of others in their community, receive support from more knowledgeable others or learning tools within their zone of proximal development, and learn within meaningful situations that are likely to deepen their understanding compared to knowledge void of context.
In this section we detail specific examples of learning environments and activities that align to social perspectives of learning. They include collaborative authentic activities, project-based learning, flipped learning environments, and online collaborative spaces. Collaborative environments that encourage learners to think critically and apply knowledge and skills is a central component of social learning theories.
As educators strive to create cooperative learning experiences for students, authentic activities and anchored instruction promote sociocultural perspectives of learning by encouraging the contextualization of learning in the simulation of practical problems, the development of cultural skills through guided participation in collaborative groups, and the use of language to both communicate and internalize learning. The implementation of collaborative, authentic activities in learning experiences typically involves learners collaborating to solve problems embedded in real-life situations Reeves et al.
Authentic activities contextualize learning and allow for a diverse application of skills and knowledge within real-world scenarios. This type of learning allows students to engage in problem solving within learning contexts that provide for connection-building across the curriculum in order to develop meaning Bransford et al.
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As students collaborate and engage with the material, the teacher becomes a coach and guides students along the process. Through both authentic activities and anchored instruction, learning takes place in a social setting, encouraging students to develop, share, and implement creative solutions to complex problems as collaborative teams. One example of a collaborative, authentic, anchored learning experience is the Jasper Woodbury mathematics project developed for middle school mathematics students Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, Learners engaged with pre-designed tasks presented as an adventure on a video-disc, and they had to identify needed information, determine how to examine a task, and apply their solutions to an immediate sub-problem CTGV, Project-based learning engages learners in collaborative situations where they must address a complex problem or real-world challenge.
Although they are alike, problem-based learning and project-based learning traditionally differ in scope and size. Unlike the former, the latter requires students to work together to concurrently master several learning objectives as they apply newly acquired skills and knowledge embedded in several problems to solve Capraro, Capraro, and Morgan, Due to the complexity of these situations, most enactments of project-based learning involve learners working in teams on these tasks Condliffe et al.
Project-based work that is collaborative, however, teaches students how to prioritize and apportion tasks within the project Garcia, It also promotes student-initiated inquiry, scaffolding, and soft skill development in areas such as collaboration and communication. Project-based learning is a multi-layered process of acquiring new skills and knowledge to successfully provide a solution to a challenge. Throughout the process, students are constantly gaining new information from multiple sources, including their peers, to guide them to their final solution.
Most systems and careers function as a result of distributed cognition: airports, schools, hospitals, and restaurants are all systems that rely on the sharing of information to effectively work. Project-based learning can be viewed in the same manner since students will accomplish more towards the task as more information is shared with them. The more exposed a student is to resources and classmates, the more learning occurs. Students can learn as individuals, but their opportunities for learning are increased when they can engage in a project within a group.
Watching lectures in videos before class is beneficial for two reasons.
First, students spend more time communicating and constructing knowledge with hands-on activities during class Educause, Secondly, as students are watching the videos and learning new skills and knowledge, they can pause, rewind, and think about their learning as it is happening, a phenomenon that rarely occurs during a lecture given in class and in real-time Educause, ; Brame, In theory, the flipped classroom model is an excellent way to maximize social learning under the facilitation of a teacher. In practice, however, it does have some drawbacks, including the additional amount of time teachers must invest in preparing the video assignments, ensuring all students have access to the videos outside of school, and making sure all students complete their video-lecture assignments prior to class.