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It can make it difficult or painful to urinate. It can make you have to urinate more often. It can also give you a fever, low-back pain or pain in your groin the area where the legs meet your body. It may make you less interested in having sex or unable to get an erection or keep it.

Prostatitis | Kaiser Permanente

Prostatitis is easy to confuse with other infections in the urinary tract. The prostate is a gland that lies just below a man's urinary bladder. It surrounds the urethra like a donut and is in front of the rectum. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the bladder, through the penis and out of the body. Your doctor may check your prostate by putting a finger into your rectum to feel the back of your prostate gland. The prostate gland makes a fluid that provides nutrients for sperm. This fluid makes up most of the ejaculate fluid. We do not yet know all of the ways the prostate gland works.

Prostatitis is divided into categories based on cause. Two kinds of prostatitis, acute prostatitis and chronic bacterial prostatitis, are caused by infection of the prostate. Some kinds of prostatitis might be caused when the muscles of the pelvis or the bladder don't work right.

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The treatment is based on the cause. Your doctor may do a rectal exam and test urine samples to find out the cause. An antibiotic is used to treat prostatitis that is caused by an infection. Some antibiotics that might be used are trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxin. You might have to take antibiotics for several weeks or even a few months. If prostatitis is severe, you might have to go to a hospital for treatment with fluids and antibiotics. Because we do not understand what causes prostatitis without infection, it can be hard to treat.

Your doctor might try an antibiotic to treat a hidden infection. Other treatments are aimed at making you feel better. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, and hot soaking baths may help you feel better. Some men get better by taking medicines that help the way the bladder or prostate gland work.

These medicines include oxybutynin, doxazosin, prazosin, tamsulosin and terazosin. Sometimes prostatitis is caused by a sexually transmitted organism, such as chlamydia.

What is the prostate?

However, most cases are caused by infections that are not sexually transmitted. These infections can't be passed on to sexual partners. Men who have had prostatitis once are more likely to get it again. Antibiotics may not get into the prostate gland well. Once you stop taking the antibiotic, the infection can get bad again. If this happens, you might have to take antibiotics for a long time to prevent another infection. Prostatitis that is not caused by infection is often chronic.

If you have this kind of prostatitis, you might have to take medicine for a long time. Although prostatitis can cause you trouble, it does not cause cancer. There is a blood test some doctors use for prostate cancer called the prostate-specific antigen test called the PSA, for short. If you have prostatitis, your PSA level might go up. This does not mean you have cancer. Your doctor will treat your prostatitis and may check your PSA level again. Already a member or subscriber? Log in. This handout is provided to you by your family doctor and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Ferri FF.

In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; Prostatitis, epididymitis, and orchitis. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; chap Disorders of the prostate. Essential Surgery: Problems, Diagnosis and Management. Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate.

Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis

Updated July Accessed September 27, Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Editorial team. Prostatitis - bacterial. Acute prostatitis starts quickly. Long-term chronic prostatitis lasts for 3 months or more. Sexually transmitted infections STIs are more likely to occur from: Certain sexual practices, such as having anal sex without wearing a condom Having many sexual partners In men over age 35, E coli and other common bacteria most often cause prostatitis.

This type of prostatitis may begin in the: Epididymis, a small tube that sits on top of the testes. Urethra, the tube that carries urine from your bladder and out through the penis. Acute prostatitis may also be caused by problems with the urethra or prostate, such as: Blockage that reduces or prevent the flow of urine out of the bladder Foreskin of the penis that cannot be pulled back phimosis Injury to the area between the scrotum and anus perineum Urinary catheter , cystoscopy , or prostate biopsy removing a piece of tissue to look for cancer Men age 50 or older who have an enlarged prostate have a higher risk for prostatitis.

Symptoms can start quickly, and can include: Chills Fever Flushing of the skin Lower stomach tenderness Body aches Symptoms of chronic prostatitis are similar, but not as severe. Urinary symptoms include: Blood in the urine Burning or pain with urination Difficulty starting to urinate or emptying the bladder Foul-smelling urine Weak urine stream Other symptoms that may occur with this condition: Pain or aching in the abdomen above the pubic bone, in the lower back, in the area between the genitals and anus, or in the testicles Pain with ejaculation or blood in the semen Pain with bowel movements If prostatitis occurs with an infection in or around the testicles epididymitis or orchitis , you may also have symptoms of that condition.

Exams and Tests.

During a physical exam, your health care provider may find: Enlarged or tender lymph nodes in your groin Fluid released from your urethra Swollen or tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. The exam may reveal that the prostate is: Large and soft with a chronic prostate infection Swollen, or tender with an acute prostate infection Urine samples may be collected for urinalysis and urine culture.

Antibiotics are often used to treat prostate infections. For acute prostatitis, you will take antibiotics for 2 to 6 weeks. For chronic prostatitis, you will take antibiotics for at least 2 to 6 weeks.


Because the infection can come back, you may need to take medicine for up to 12 weeks. To care for prostatitis at home : Urinate often and completely. Take warm baths to relieve pain. Take stool softeners to make bowel movements more comfortable. Avoid substances that irritate your bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated foods and drinks, citrus juices, and hot or spicy foods.

Drink more fluid 64 to ounces or 2 to 4 liters per day to urinate often and help flush bacteria out of your bladder. Outlook Prognosis. Acute prostatitis should go away with medicine and minor changes to your diet and behavior. It may come back or turn into chronic prostatitis. Possible Complications.